Language translation is one of the important activities to support human communication. This is because the language used by humans is different in each region and country so not everyone will understand what we say. Therefore, there is a need for translation to help us communicate with people who have different languages with us.
Definition of Translation
The translation is the interpretation of the meaning of texts from various languages by producing equivalent texts in other languages (same meaning). According to Oxford, translation is the communication of messages from different languages which use the same text.
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Definition of Translation According to Experts
To better understand the term translation, here are the definitions of translation according to several experts.
1. Definition of Translation According to David Crystal
David Crystal, a linguistic expert, defines translation as a neutral term that refers to the activity of changing the meaning of expressions in the source language into another language. The translation media used can be spoken, written, or signs or gestures.
2. Understanding Translation According to Brislin
Brislin argues that translation is the transfer of messages and ideas from the source language to the target language, both in written and oral form.
3. Definition of Translation According to Newmark
In his book, A Textbook of Translation, Newmark (1988) states that translation is the transfer of the meaning of a text from one language to another following the author’s intention.
4. Definition of Translation According to Catford
According to Catford, the definition of translation is the process of replacing source language text material with equivalent text material in another language.
5. Definition of Translation According to Nida & Taber
Meanwhile, Nida and Taber (1969), in their book entitled The Theory and Practice of Translation define translation as an activity to find the equivalent of the source language into the target language. With a note, the equivalent used has the closest meaning to the source language in the context of language and culture.
From the several meanings of translation above, we can see that experts provide different limits for the term translation (translation). David Crystal provides translation limitations (translation) applies to spoken, written, and symbols or signs. Meanwhile, Brislin provides translation limitations that apply to spoken and written. It’s different with Newmark and Catford which limit the term translation only for writing.
Experts define translation differently. But in general, the term translation means the process of transferring language from the source language to the target language. In the process of translating the language, one must use the equivalent of the word that has the closest meaning to the source language, especially in the context of language and culture.